In vivo pharmacokinetic studies (parenteral administration)

Axcelead Drug Discovery Partners (hereinafter referred to as Axcelead DDP) will support you in designing optimal administration of parenteral drug products from multiple points of view, combining efficacy and safety evaluation in addition to in vivo pharmacokinetic studies using a variety of routes of administration and animal species!

If you would like to:

  • find a route that avoids side effects for a compound you are discovering,

  • evaluate repositioning by changing the dosage form, from both pharmacokinetic and efficacy perspectives , or

  • discover an optimal compound that suits the route you targeted,

Entrust drug discovery of parenteral formulation to Axcelead DDP!
Feature 1 Proposition utilizing our ability for and knowledge of broad studies

It is important to compare a variety of routes and select an appropriate experimental animal species for optimal dosing design.
Axcelead DDP will utilize our considerable accumulated experience and technological capabilities to propose an optimal route of administration that suits your needs and modalities.

Feature 2 Multilateral evaluation from pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety points of view
onsideration of the balance among pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety as well as the results of pharmacokinetic studies is required. Axcelead DDP will provide one-stop speedy support for these diversified evaluations and analyses because it has all of the required functions necessary for drug discovery research.
For some routes of administration, Axcelead DDP can provide services ranging from judgement of appropriateness of compounds to human prediction.

Feature 3 Ability to deal with the next-generation transdermal delivery system

We team up with PassPort Technologies, Inc., San Diego, USA, to deal with studies using the novel active transdermal delivery technology, PassPort System®.
We will explore new possibilities for routes of administration.

Details of routes of administration
■ Nasal administration

  • Administration of drug liquid to the animal’s nasal cavity under conscious conditions (for rats) or under anesthesia.
  • This type of administration is useful for drugs that are expected to act immediately, will be greatly affected by the first-pass effect, or can be easily inactivated in the gastrointestinal tract, because capillaries are densely distributed in nasal mucosa.
  • The method is suitable for central nervous system diseases, because drugs can be delivered from nasal mucosa to the brain without passing through the blood-brain barrier.

■ Pulmonary administration

  • Administration of drug powder or liquid to the animal’s lungs by spraying it under anesthesia.
  • In addition to direct exposure to the lungs or the bronchi, absorption of drugs with low membrane permeability into circulating blood can be expected due to the large surface area of the lung, with densely distributed capillaries.

■ Sublingual administration

  • Administration of drug liquid to the animal’s sublingual space under conscious conditions (for monkeys) or under anesthesia.
  • Immediate action can be expected because drugs will be rapidly absorbed from oral mucosa.

▶▶▶Example of parenteral administration
lasma concentrations after intravenous, pulmonary, nasal, and sublingual administration of desmopressin to cynomolgus monkeys. The optimal route of administration suitable for drug characteristics will be explored on the basis of concentration-time profiles after administration.

■ Transdermal administration

  • Administration by applying drug liquid on, or adhering patch formulation to, the animal’s skin.
  • Persistent effects can be expected because the drugs will be gradually absorbed through the skin.

Our experience in pharmacokinetic studies using various animal species


We will also provide support for intraperitoneal, intramuscular, intraduodenal, intrarectal, and other administrations. Please consult with us.